In February 1917, the German Empire re-embarked on unlimited submarine war, causing the United States to enter the war on the Entente side in April. However, it was only at the beginning of 1918 that American troops were deployed on a large scale in France. The hope that England would give in within a few months as a result of the submarine warfare remained unfulfilled. The war continued to be a standoff.

american troops arrive in England

In the spring of 1917, the Austrian leadership feared that the Danube Monarchy would not be able to continue the war beyond the coming winter. Emperor Karl I. and the new Foreign Secretary Czernin thus urged Berlin for new peace talks to be held. Bethmann-Hollweg confirmed his preparedness for talks, but he also said that at that point, the war could only be ended by the Central Powers submitting to the will of the Allies. They would have to wait and see how the revolution in Russia would progress. There had been workers’ unrests in March, the Czar had abdicated because of them, his brother had renounced his right for succession to the throne. The new Republican government continued the war.

In mid-April, the Russian Council of People’s Commissioners offered a general peace without annexations and compensations. In Germany, the Social Democrats at once supported this offer. Even Matthias Erzberger of the Centre Party who occasionally travelled abroad on behalf of the German government, supported it. He was the main initiator of the resolution adopted by the Reichstag on 19 July. With a clear majority, the Parliament expressed itself in favour of a peace of understanding and lasting reconciliation of the peoples against forced cessions of territory and economic and financial rape. Only an economic peace would enable a friendly coexistence of the peoples. The Reichstag also advocated the creation of international rights organisations but the Supreme Army Command was against this resolution. Bethmann-Hollweg thought it inappropriate at that moment in time and thus lost the confidence of the parties advocating the resolution. On 13 July, he stepped down from office.

Imperial Chancellor Georg Michaelis 13 July 1917-30 October 1917

His successor, Georg Michaelis, avowed himself at the beginning of the debate about the resolution to the lasting reconciliation of the peoples and to a peace of understanding, but one which would have to be able to safeguard Germany’s interests in Europe and overseas. Lloyd George, by now the British Prime Minister, called this speech a sign of commitment to war and to achieving a false peace.

On 1 August, Pope Benedict XV. called upon the warring parties to enter into peace talks. He advocated an obligatory arbitral jurisdiction for all international issues, the settlement of all territorial disputes in a spirit of conciliation, the mutual waiving of war reparations, disarmament and the freedom of the seas. This appeal had been agreed upon by nuncio Pacelli with the leadership of the Reich in late June. An official German comment was published only in mid-September, expressing the spirited hope that the Papal initiative be successful. This declaration was immediately handed over to the press. In doing so, the Reich government once again, like so many times before, made a public commitment to reconciliation. The Allies rejected the Papal proposition right away, Wilson did so very decisively. On 1 November, Michaelis stepped down from office. The new Chancellor Georg Graf von Hertling held no different attitude towards peace than its two predecessors.

In Russia, the Bolsheviks came to power following an uprising on 7 November. Lenin, the chairman of the now ruling Council of the People’s Commissioners, declared on 9 November in front of the Council congress that his government would offer peace to all warring nations on the basis of Soviet conditions, i.e. no annexations and contributions, and the right of self-determination to the peoples. This was also written in his decree for peace. The Central Powers agreed to his request for an armistice. On 4 December, a cease-fire went into effect to bring on a long-term and honourable peace for all parties. The negotiations started on 22 December in Brest-Litowsk. During the session on 25 December, Czernin called the Russian principles a basis worth discussing. Should that happen, the governments of all warring nations would have to commit themselves to respecting them.

It was decided to ask the Allies for a statement in this sense within ten days. Therewas no response. The Western powers equally disregarded an invitation by the Russian Foreign Commissar to take part in the peace negotiations. A conversation initiated by Czernin between an Austrian diplomat and the South-African politician Jan Smuts, a member of the British Imperial War Cabinet, which took place in Bern in late December, also brought no results.

Vladimir Lenin addresses the people

The Central Powers’ draft for a peace treaty with Russia was very succinct. It demanded that the Russian government take notice of the will of the people to give full sovereignty to Poland, Lithuania, Courland, and parts of Estonia and Livonia. Further articles regulated the entry into force once again of the treaties effective before the war, and mutual renunciation of the replacement of war losses and the restitution of war expenses. The Soviet leadership was not united in their stance on this treaty. Lenin expected a world revolution, so he thought that the treaty would not to be valid for long so he might just as well sign it. Foreign Commissar Trotsky proposed to simply abandon the war and a majority was in favour of this. After returning to Brest-Litovsk, he first tried to delay the negotiations, and on 18 February 1918 he declared in the political commission that Russia would not sign the treaty but rather leave the war and hope that other peoples would follow suit. The Central Powers judged this a cancellation of the armistice, correctly according to international law, and  restarted their military advance. Soon afterwards, the Central Committee gave in and signed the treaty  which included some new amendments regarding Central Asia and Armenia. Peace was concluded on 3 March.

From June to August, supplementary German-Russian agreements were negotiated in Berlin. There it was agreed that the Central Powers were to withdraw their troops from the Russian areas they had occupied. Ending the combat operations in the East enabled the Supreme Army Command to deploy troops to the Western front. The Germany offensive which started there in late March was particularly intended to hit British troops in order to make London more willing to talk. At first, the German army was very successful, but in early June, they came to a halt. Starting in July, the Allied forces successively pushed back the German troops. Bulgaria had joined the Central Powers in 1915. In mid-September 1918, the Allied forces broke through the front there. By the end of the same month, the country had to surrender unconditionally. Now Hindenburg, the Head of the Supreme Army Command, demanded that the German government ask President Wilson to mediate an armistice. For this, he found agreement in Berlin. The crown council decided on 29 September to introduce the parliamentary system in order to improve the odds for a beneficial peace.

Prince Max von Baden

Hertling was against this and stepped down. Prince Max von Baden became the new Reich Chancellor. Thanks to his long-standing activities in caring for prisoners of war, he was well-regarded even abroad. He had spoken publicly in favour of a League of Nations, and in interior politics he was ready to conduct reforms. On the very same day he was appointed, i.e. on the evening of 3 October, he asked President Wilson via Switzerland for a peace treaty on the basis of the “Fourteen Points” of 8 January 1918, and in order to prevent further bloodshed, for the immediate conclusion of an armistice. The Danube Monarchy followed suit one day later, the Ottoman Empire soon after. Wilson delayed fulfilling this plea for an immediate armistice by five weeks because the Allies first wanted to improve their military position.

On 5 November, U.S. Secretary of State Lansing declared that the Allies were now ready for an armistice which would secure them the absolute power to enforce the details of the peace accepted by the German government. This delay cost the lives of some 10,000 soldiers. During this period, the Danube monarchy collapsed, and in Germany, a revolution broke out in early November. A Council of the People’s Deputies took over government. The armistice signed in the early morning of 11 November stipulated that battles should end at noon, 11 am British time.